First Person

Ask an Expert: Get ready to meet the teacher

Ilana Spiegel, mom of four, former teacher and literacy coach, suggests questions to ask at back-to-school night.

Q. How can I make the most of back-to-school meetings with my daughter’s teacher? I don’t want to be pesky but I have a lot of questions about academic expectations and also how the teacher maintains a quality social climate.

A. Sometimes I think parents don’t know what to ask at these back-to-school nights.

I am about to engage in a back-to-school triathlon.  My oldest son Max is starting high school. My oldest daughter Charlotte is starting middle school. My younger son Jack will be in fourth grade. And Ruthie, my baby, is starting kindergarten. You would think with all the first days of school that have come and gone as a parent and literacy consultant, and before that as a classroom teacher, I would be a pro without a care or question. So why will I be attending four back to school nights, what kinds of questions will I be asking and how will I ask them?

For anyone starting in a new school, regardless of the grade, it is important to get the lay of the land: who’s who, what’s what and where on earth is the west cafeteria where you have to register?  A lot of back-to-school is logistics – figuring out how the system works and knowing who and where to go when questions pop up. It’s also important to know what my responsibilities are, what the teachers’ responsibilities are, what my children’s responsibilities are and how we can best support them.

Speaking of supporting our kids, there are plenty of pesky questions that are reasonable to ask if they are not addressed during the presentations:

Key questions to ask

  • How much homework should we expect?  There are lots of different schools of thought about homework and it’s nice to know that you and your child’s teacher are in the same building. Most people agree that 10 minutes per grade is reasonable. That means 10 minutes for a kindergartener or first-grader, 40 minutes for a fourth-grader, an hour for a sixth-grader and about two hours for a high school student. That said, most teachers and schools “require” a set amount of minutes to be read at home each night.  With my own children, I believe the minutes spent reading are in addition to the minutes spent doing other homework.
  • How will I know my child is growing academically and socially besides report cards and test scores? A grade on a test or report card tells me how my child is doing after the fact. In the education world, we call that “summative assessment,” or a summary of what was learned.  The problem with summative assessments is that if your child is struggling or has gaps in her understanding, waiting for a test or a report card is a little too late to do anything about it.  You want to know what kind of evidence of her learning along the way (in education-speak, it’s called “formative assessment”) the teacher will be looking for so she can adjust her instruction when your child needs it most, and so she can practice new skills correctly.
  • How do you help students negotiate the drama with peers both in the classroom and during recess? Use your words.  Know the difference between telling and tattling. You can work it out. Most of our kids are told to work out the social difficulties with little if any guidance in exactly what words to use, what to tell and how to work it out. You want to know that your child’s teacher and any support staff are trained in helping to coach your child and her friends to navigate the social land mines of independent work time and recess. By and large, when your child is engaged in a rigorous, in-depth and practical curriculum, many of the social issues become much easier to address, as she can use many of the skills she is learning to make sense of the social landscape around her.

How to ask a question of the teacher

Speaking of addressing issues, now that you know what to ask, it’s important to know how to ask.

True confession:  I am that parent. I ask the hard questions. My husband likes to say that the good teachers love having me as a parent and the not-so-good ones, well, not so much. It really comes down to one word – collaboration. If you ask your questions in a way that lets the teacher know you are on the same side, that you know her intent is good, that it isn’t about her or you but about your child and the children in the class, many of the concerns about being pesky seem to evaporate.

Perhaps it comes down to the old adage: It’s not what you say but how you say it.  Most teachers welcome the opportunity to talk about what they know, what they are working on professionally and how they are going to make that work for your child. Just like every wedding has “that guy” at “that table,” every class has “that parent.”  Just like “that guy” can be an annoying embarrassment, “that guy” could be the happiest memory of an event and “that parent” could not only have the admiration and respect of teachers and parents, but really make a positive difference for her child and all the children in the class.

First Person

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Grace Tatter covers a press conference at the Tennessee State Capitol in 2015.

For three years, I covered the Statehouse for Chalkbeat Tennessee, reporting on how policies from Nashville trickled down into more than 1,800 public schools across the state.

Now I’m starting back to school myself, pursuing graduate studies aimed at helping me to become a better education journalist. I’m taking with me six things I learned on the job about public education in Tennessee.

1. Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.

I heard from hundreds of parents, educators, and students who were passionate about what’s happening — good and bad — inside of schools. I covered crowded school board meetings and regularly scrambled for an open seat at legislative hearings where parents had filled the room after driving since dawn to beat the opening gavel. Not incidentally, those parents usually came from communities with the “worst” schools and the lowest test scores. While many disagreements exist about the best way to run schools, there is no shortage of people, particularly parents and educators, who care.

2. Tennessee has one of the most fascinating education stories in America.

I’ve had a front-row seat to massive changes in K-12 education under reforms ushered in by Race to the Top — an overhaul being tracked closely well beyond the state’s borders. But the national interest and import doesn’t end with changes stemming from the $500 million federal award. Tennessee is home to some of the nation’s premier education researchers, making its classrooms laboratories for new ideas about pre-K, school turnaround, and literacy instruction, just to name a few. And at the legislature, more lobbyists are devoted to education than to most any other cause. A lot of eyes are on Tennessee schools.

3. The education community is not as divided as it looks.

During the course of just a few years, I watched state lawmakers change their positions on accountability and school vouchers. I witnessed “anti-charter” activists praise charter leaders for their work. I chronicled task force meetings where state leaders who were committed to standardized testing found middle ground with classroom educators concerned that it’s gone too far. In short, a lot of people listened to each other and changed their minds. Watching such consensus-building reminded me that, while there are no simple debates about education, there is a widespread commitment to making it better.

4. Money matters.

Even when stories don’t seem to be about money, they usually are. How much money is being spent on testing, teacher salaries, school discipline reform? How much should be available for wraparound services? Why do some schools have more money than others? Is there enough to go around? Tennessee leaders have steadily upped public education spending, but the state still invests less than most other states, and the disparities among districts are gaping. That’s why more than a handful of school districts are battling with the state in court. Conversations about money are inextricable from conversations about improving schools.

5. Race is a significant education issue, but few leaders are willing to have that conversation.

More than 60 years after Brown v. Board of Education, Tennessee’s schools are largely racially segregated. Yet most policymakers tread lightly, if ever, into conversations about achieving real racial integration. And in many cases — such as a 2011 law enabling mostly white suburban Shelby County towns to secede from the mostly black Memphis district — they’ve actually gone backwards. Then there’s the achievement data. The annual release of test scores unleashes a flurry of conversation around the racial achievement gap. But the other 11 months of the year, I heard little about whether state and local policies are closing those gaps — or contributing to them — or the historical reasons why the gaps exist in the first place. To be sure, state leadership is trying to address some of Tennessee’s shortcomings. For example, the State Department of Education has launched modestly funded initiatives to recruit more teachers of color. But often, race and racism are the elephants in the room.

6. Still, there’s lots to celebrate.

If there were unlimited hours in the day, I could have written thousands of stories about what’s going right in public education. Every day, I received story ideas about collaborations with NASA in Oak Ridge, high school trips to Europe from Memphis, gourmet school lunches in Tullahoma, and learning partnerships with the Nashville Zoo. Even in schools with the steepest challenges, they were stories that inspire happiness and hope. They certainly inspired me.

Grace Tatter graduated from public schools in Winston-Salem, N.C., and received her bachelor’s degree in history from the University of North Carolina. She’s now pursuing a master’s degree in specialized studies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

First Person

I’m a Houston geography teacher. This is my plan for our first day back — as soon as it arrives

PHOTO: Creative Commons / Texas Military Department
Texas National Guard soldiers arrive in Houston, Texas to aid citizens in heavily flooded areas from the storms of Hurricane Harvey.

Hurricane Harvey has upended so many things here in Houston, where I am starting my third year as a teacher. One of them is the lesson I am planning for the first day of school — as soon as it arrives.

This upheaval is nothing compared to what people across the city have faced, including my students, who have been sending me photos of evacuation boats going past their houses.

But it is fundamental to the task of being a teacher at a time of crisis. As an A.P. Human Geography teacher, my job is to help students make connections between the geography concepts we are learning in class and their real lives: Does Houston look like the models of urban development we study? Does their family history include a migration?

Before the storm, my thinking went like this: I am white and was born in England and most of my students are Hispanic, many with parents who were born in other countries. I was excited for us to share and compare our different stories. My students last year were shocked and fascinated when they discovered that my white, middle-aged father who is a university professor was applying for a green card, just as many of their family members were.

Now, Hurricane Harvey has underlined for me the importance of those real-world connections. As I looked at the photos from my students, I was struck by how geography concepts can affect us in very real — even life-threatening — ways.

I had planned to teach a lesson at the end of the year about how urbanization affects the environment. The lesson looks at how urbanization can exacerbate flooding: for example, how paving over grassy areas can increase the speed with which rain reaches the bayous, causing the water levels to rise faster. I would then have students evaluate different policies cities can adopt to mitigate that risk, such as encouraging the building on brownfield rather than greenfield sites and passing laws to protect farmland — options that have significant benefits but also significant costs.

I have decided to move this lesson up in the curriculum and teach it when we have school again. School is scheduled to start again on Tuesday, though at this stage everything is provisional, as each hour we find out about more families that have had their homes destroyed by the rising waters. It is still unclear how all our staff, let alone students, will get to school.

I am worried that the lesson could re-traumatize students who have experienced so much trauma in the past few days. I know I will need to make an active effort to make students feel comfortable stepping into the hall if they are feeling overwhelmed. However, my experiences with the recent presidential election make me think that this lesson is exactly what some students might need.

After the election, many students were genuinely confused about what had happened. One question in particular was on their minds: How you can you win the popular vote but not the election? We talked through the Electoral College together, and having clarity about what had happened and why it happened seemed to give them a firmer foundation to build on as they processed their emotions. I am hopeful that teaching about flooding will help ground them in a similar way.

This lesson about flooding was once simply another lesson in the curriculum, but now it has taken on a new urgency. In moments of disaster, it is easy to feel powerless; I certainly could not help the people I saw posting on Facebook that they were been on hold with 911 for hours while standing on their roofs.

Yet teachers have a unique power — the power to shape the minds of future generations to solve the problems that we face. Houston’s location means that it will always be susceptible to flooding. But by teaching about the flood I hope I can play a small role in helping our city avoid repeating some of the tragic scenes I witnessed this week.

Alex McNaughton teaches history and geography at YES Prep Southeast in Houston.

Looking to help? YES Prep is collecting donations to support its students and their families. Houston ISD and KIPP Houston are also soliciting donations for their students.