Lost in Translation

Charter innovations show promising results for teaching language

PHOTO: Kelly Wilkinson / The Star
Instructional aid Maricela Berrospe, right, works with Kindergartners at Enlace Academy. Much of the instruction at the school takes place in small groups.

Mariama Carson’s dream is to open a charter school unlike any other in the state focused on learning two languages at once.

If she gets the go-ahead, students from Kindergarten to eighth grade will exclusively speak Spanish half the day and English the other half. Teachers will drill lessons in grammar, math and culture in both languages with the goal that they graduate fully bilingual.

As the number of English language learners in Indianapolis charter schools swells — it could reach a quarter of charter school enrollment by 2020 — some schools are becoming beacons for a fast-growing Latino population.

Three charter schools in particular are trying new approaches.

Carson’s plan for the Global Preparatory Academy, if approved, is primarily aimed at the explosion of immigrants moving to the city’s Northwest side in Lafayette Square. Enlace Academy, also on the Northwest side, makes broad use of new technology while mostly serving English language learners. And Christel House Academy South has added more one-on-one teaching as its enrollment of language learners has grown.


The freedom to innovate is supposed to be what sets apart charter schools, which are free and publicly funded, but privately managed outside of school district control.

Freedom doesn’t always equate to success. For example, four low-scoring Indianapolis charter schools will close this summer.

But new research might suggest some charter schools’ innovations are helping English language learners succeed.

A national study released last month found Indianapolis charter schools out-performed the city’s traditional public schools for English language learners in both reading and math. Stanford University’s Center for Research on Education Outcomes, or CREDO, analyzed data from 2006 to 2011 for the study.

The comparison used a measurement called “additional days of learning,” and it found Indianapolis charter school students learning English as a new language gained an additional 65 days of learning, or about one-third of the school year, more than similar students at Indianapolis Public Schools.

Others are skeptical.

Jonathan Plucker, a University of Connecticut education psychology professor and former director of Indiana University’s Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, said comparing an average of large groups — such as the difference between students at charter schools and a public district — might not be the best way to look at the data.

He said he wouldn’t base too much thinking on one study.

“How can we get student growth for all of these students higher and not just look at this one average data point?” Plucker asked.

Rafael Sanchez, a Hispanic community leader and Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce board member, said charter schools, publicly funded vouchers that help families pay private school tuition and other choice options are unfamiliar to many Latinos and other immigrants.

Any school, he said, that wants to appeal to immigrant families need to have the proper “ecosystem” of diversity in teaching and a staff that can relate not just through language but cultural sensitivity.

“There is a wait-and-see approach within the Latino community,” he said about charter schools, even as some, such as Enlace, are making inroads with Hispanic families.

Traditional public schools, such IPS, feel more familiar, Sanchez said.

Using computers to help language learners

Among the restaurants and markets off west 38th Street, in a part of town known as the International Marketplace, is Enlace Academy.

Located on the second floor of Gambold Preparatory, an IPS magnet high school, Enlace has its own approach to helping language learners: the so-called “blended learning” model. It’s a type of personalized, high-tech academics gaining popularity nationally.

This year, more than half the school — 55 percent — are English-language learners.

On a recent day, a Kindergarten class buzzed with chatter as students pecked at keyboards and crowded around tables to collaborate.

Two teachers oversaw 30 students in each classroom. During each day, groups of 10 students split their time three ways: by working together or independently, being lectured by the teacher or hunkered down in front of a computer or iPad.

“What we want to do is create a way for teachers to teach in small groups where they are developing closer knit relationships with their students,” Kevin Kubacki, the school’s founder, said. “Students have more time to speak and interact. And the students are learning at their grade level.”

One student’s program, part of the i-Ready literacy software, appears similar to the 1980s arcade game Frogger. It teaches kids how to say short vowel sounds and blended consonants. A digitized frog croaks and jumps forward with each right answer. Questions get harder when students get right answers and easier when they get them wrong.

Instructors can watch the results in real time and react by changing the way they teach, Kubacki said.

Enlace is too new for an A-to-F grade from the state. But early evidence points to significant academic growth for students who were lagging in reading, math and other skills when they enrolled, Kubacki says.

Kubacki wants students to achieve a year and half of academic growth for each year they are enrolled at Enlace until they have mastered skills equal to their current grade level.

“So far we have seen that,” he said about students’ knowledge catching up to where it should be. “And this year we are on pace for similar growth.”

Individual attention as a strategy

Christel House South, a K-12 campus, is made up of nearly one-quarter of English language learners who have have made big gains on ISTEP and the third grade reading test, IREAD, during the same period as the Stanford study.

Carey Dahncke, chief academic officer for the network, said teachers use a method called “intervention,” giving additional learning time — sometimes during class, after school or during special June classes — to rachet up skills.

That extra time, Dahncke says, can be used to knock down potential roadblocks by explaining a word. Bill, for instance, has many meanings, from a person’s name to what sticks out of a duck’s face.

“So if you just take it for granted that students understand that the same word in English can have multiple meanings — even very, very simple words — if you don’t provide instruction around that, some students will miss that,” he said.

Test scores for English language learners at Christel House were above average during the same years as the CREDO study.

For example in 2011-12, 65 percent of Christel House English-language learners passed both the math and reading portions of the ISTEP exam, according to the Indiana Department of Education. That is nearly nearly 18 percentage points higher than the state average pass rate for language learners, but it’s still behind the 71.5 percent average pass rate of all students that same year.

Last year, 56 percent of Christel House language learners passed both parts of the state exam.

Learning two languages at once

Carson, a former Pike Township principal, has seen Latino students struggle when their families can’t speak English and their teachers can’t speak Spanish. But Global Prep, she said, will “unlock” both worlds.

“This is bigger than a second language,” she said. “It is the kind of instruction students have through a second language. I think that kind of opportunity is what many of my children (at Pike Township) needed but that is not the structure of a traditional, education program.”

Last year, Carson was chosen for The Mind Trust’s two-year Education Entrepreneur Fellowship to give her funds and support to design the school. Her goal is to graduate students that can do more than just speak two languages, but also be able to competently read and write their second languages.

The instruction model is described as “hands-on,” Carson said, and will be designed with help from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. Teachers will also receive specialized  training before starting at the school.

Carson wants to open the school in August 2016 with 90 students in Kindergarten and 50 first-graders. Within eight years, the school would expand to eighth grade and have 700 students enrolled.

Ideally, the grade levels would be evenly split between low-income native-English and native-Spanish speakers.

Carson, the wife of Democratic U.S. Rep. André D. Carson for Indiana’s seventh district, presents her application for sponsorship to Mayor Greg Ballard’s charter school office on May 29. A final vote on the charter is set for June 2.

If approved, Global Prep would would join three other language immersion schools in the city, but it would be the only charter school and the only one serving the city’s West side.

“For me, this is about the love of language and the love of teaching,” Carson said. “And the two have to come together.”

Eric Weddle is an education reporter with WFYI Public Media. Email him at eweddle@wfyi.org.

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pre-k for all

New York City will add dual language options in pre-K to attract parents and encourage diversity

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Schools Chancellor Carmen FariƱa, back right, visits a Mandarin pre-K dual language program at P.S. 20 Anna Silver on the Lower East Side.

Education Department officials on Wednesday announced the addition of 33 dual language pre-K programs in the 2018-19 school year, more than doubling the bilingual opportunities available for New York City’s youngest learners.

The expansion continues an aggressive push under the current administration, which has added 150 new bilingual programs to date. Popular with parents — there were 2,900 applications for about 600 pre-K dual language seats last year — the programs can also be effective in boosting the performance of students who are learning English as a new language.

Another possible benefit: creating more diverse pre-K classrooms, which research has shown are starkly segregated in New York City.

Schools Chancellor Carmen Fariña said the new programs reflect the city’s commitment to serving all students, even as a national debate rages over immigration reform.

“It’s important to understand that immigrants or people who speak a second language are an asset,” Fariña said. She called bilingual education “a gift that I think all schools should have.”

Included in the expansion are the city’s first dual language pre-K programs in Bengali and Russian, which will open in Jamaica, Queens, and the Upper West Side, Manhattan, respectively. The other additions will build on programs in Spanish, Mandarin and Italian. Every borough is represented in the expansion, with 11 new programs in Manhattan, nine in Brooklyn, six in Queens, five in the Bronx, and two on Staten Island.

In the dual-language model, students split their time between instruction in English and another language. At P.S. 20 Anna Silver, where the recent expansion was announced, pre-K students start the morning in English and transition to Mandarin after nap time. Experts say the model works best when the class includes an equal mix of students who are proficient in each language so they can learn from each other as well as the teacher, though it can often be difficult to strike that balance.

Officials and some advocates view dual-language programs as a tool for integration by drawing middle-class families eager to have their children speak two languages into neighborhood schools that they otherwise may not have considered. Research has shown that New York City’s pre-K classrooms tend to be more segregated than kindergarten. In one in six pre-K classrooms, more than 90 percent of students are from a single racial or ethnic background. That’s compared with one in eight kindergarten classrooms, according to a 2016 report by The Century Foundation.

Sharon Stapel, a mother from Brooklyn, said she knew early on that she wanted her daughter to learn another language and strike relationships across cultures. So she travels to the Lower East Side with her four-year-old, Finch, to attend the Mandarin dual-language pre-K program at P.S. 20 Anna Silver. On Wednesday, the city announced it will add a Spanish dual language program at the school.

“We really see it as how you build community with your neighbors and your friends,” Stapel said. “It was also an opportunity for Finch to become involved and engage in the cultures and in the differences that she could see in the classrooms — and really celebrate that difference.”

Citywide, about 13 percent of students are learning English as a new language. That number does not include pre-K since the state does not have a way to identify students’ language status before kindergarten. However, based on census data, it is estimated that 30 percent of three- and four-year-olds in New York are English learners.

Dual-language programs can benefit students who are still learning English — more so than English-only instruction. Nationally and in New York City, students who are learning English are less likely to pass standardized tests and graduate from high school. In one study, students who enrolled in dual-language courses in kindergarten gained the equivalent of one year of reading instruction by eighth grade, compared with their peers who received English-only instruction.

The city has been under pressure to improve outcomes for English learners. Under the previous administration, New York City was placed on a state “corrective action plan” that required the education department to open 125 new bilingual programs by 2013. Though the city fell short of that goal, the current administration has agreed to place every English learner in a bilingual program by the 2018-19 school year.

Among the greatest barriers to achieving that is finding qualified teachers, Fariña said. In some cases, it can be hard to find teachers who are fluent in the target language. In others, teachers who are native in a foreign language may only be certified in their home country, and it can be hard to transfer that certification to New York.

In order to open an Urdu program recently, Fariña said, the teacher, who holds a degree from another country, went through Teaching Fellows, an alternative certification program that usually caters to career-changers or recent college grads.

“I think the biggest challenge we have right now is ensuring our teacher preparation courses are keeping up with our need and demand for teachers who can teach another language,” she said.

Lost in Translation

10 inspiring minutes on education, freedom and the American dream

PHOTO: Scott Elliott
Elly Mawi expressed her gratitude for her teachers at Chalkbeat and WFYI's recent Conversation about Education focused on English language learners.

Chalkbeat’s recent series, Lost In Translation, jointly published with the Indianapolis Star and WFYI Public Media, aimed to shed light on the challenges schools face to help English language learners, especially those newly arrived from other countries, thrive.

But helping immigrant children at school also requires understanding their lives before coming to the United States and their broader experiences as newcomers to Indiana.

For Indianapolis, one of the biggest and fastest-growing immigrant student groups is children from Burma.

Last week, Chalkbeat brought together four people who shared their stories in the series for a panel discussion at the Central Library. For the full conversation, go here. But, thanks to WFYI, you can now view a 10-minute highlight video (below).

Be prepared to be moved.

Two of the panelists, May Oo Mutraw and and Elly Mawi, spoke passionately about the hardships Burmese families have in Indiana.

Most of them, Mutraw said, were fleeing a 66-year civil war that upended their lives.

“They lived literally in the war zone, said Mutraw, founder of Indianapolis’ Burmese Community Center for Education. “Their villages were burned down. They fled into the forest.”

Schooling, she said, was also a casualty.

“We are talking about a generation who did not get to go to school — the whole generation,” she said.

But in Indiana, with the help of public schools, they had an opportunity for a much better future. They understand the American dream.

“I personally always believed that through education we can liberate ourselves,” Mutraw said. “Education, for me and for my family, is a practice of freedom.”

Mawi, a top student graduating this year from Perry Township’s Southport High School, once sat on a dirt floor to learn from volunteer teachers in a refugee camp in Malaysia, said even in her community people don’t realize what many Burmese children have been through.

“We come here in the first place because we are at the line of life and death,” she said. “It’s whether you die or if you fight and you escape.”

Mawi praised Southport as a great place for English language learners and Perry Township as welcoming. But still, even there, not everyone understands how common her story is.

“A lot of times, people think the reason we come here is because of greed,” she said. “We get a lot of misunderstanding for that.”

Near the end of the event, Mawi turned to the audience to praise her teachers, several of whom were in the audience.

Some of them were moved to tears.

“This week is Teacher Appreciation Week, but not just this every day,” she said. “If you are a teacher sitting here tonight, or watching on live stream, thank you for what you have done.”

Mawi then addressed English as a new language teachers directly.

“As an ENL student … we thank you,” she said. “We love you. You make a difference. You might not get enough praise or enough pay or enough credit for what you have done. But you are making a difference every day in our lives.”

Teachers who have more challenges in the classroom, like helping kids learn to speak English, should be judged less harshly if test scores take time to catch up to their peers, she said.

“You are the unsung heroes of our society and community,” Mawi said, turning back toward the teachers. “We love you and thank you.”