making plans

Mayor de Blasio: I can’t ‘wipe away 400 years of American history’ in diversifying schools

PHOTO: Michael Appleton/Mayoral Photography Office

After promising a “bigger vision” for creating more diverse schools, Mayor Bill de Blasio on Thursday seemed to temper expectations for the city’s soon-to-be-released plan to tackle segregation.

Responding to questions from reporters at a press conference, the mayor suggested the proposal is not so much a sweeping citywide plan as one that would improve diversity at “a number of schools.”

“I’m not in the business of lying to people. We’re not going to put forward a plan that says we’re going to instantly wipe away 400 years of American history and suddenly create a perfect model of diversity,” he said. “But we can make a major difference in a number of schools with some smart methodologies to increase the level of diversity.”

The mayor pointed to a recent, highly contentious zoning change in a handful of schools in District 3 as a “great example” of how the city can encourage integration. Community Education Council members in District 3, which includes the Upper West Side and part of Harlem, voted to shift attendance boundaries around a sought-after school where most students are white and an under-enrolled school where most students are black and Hispanic.

“They were very devoted to figuring out a way to have more diverse schools, but also high-quality schools for everyone,” de Blasio said. “We’re going to be looking to do more things like that.”

The rezoning began as an effort to relieve overcrowding, not an explicit attempt at integration. It’s too early to tell whether the zoning change will actually integrate schools, but many are skeptical it will have a major impact.

In August, the mayor said a “bigger vision” plan was in the works to promote integration in New York City schools, home to one of the most segregated school systems in the country. The administration has said the proposal will be released by the end of the school year in June, but the details have largely been kept secret.

Advocates for school integration recently called on the Department of Education to start a public engagement process to discuss the proposal, incorporate feedback and build support for whatever measures are ultimately implemented.

De Blasio and schools Chancellor Carmen Fariña have both faced increasing pressure to act decisively on school diversity. On Thursday, the mayor repeated his stance that schools are segregated because of their neighborhoods.

“Could we create the perfect model for diversified schools across the school system? No,” de Blasio said. “Because you have whole districts in this city that are overwhelmingly of one demographic background. You would have to do a massive transfer of students and families in order to achieve it. It’s just not real.”

making plans

New York City inches towards a diversity plan for middle schools in a segregated Brooklyn district

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
M.S. 51 in Park Slope is one of the most selective middle schools in District 15.

After sustained pressure from advocates and elected officials, the New York City education department is taking steps towards a plan to promote diversity in middle schools across an entire district — which would make it one of the most far-reaching integration efforts under Mayor Bill de Blasio to date.

In the coming months, the department will launch a community-input process to gather ideas about how to create such a system in Brooklyn’s District 15, where the middle schools are sharply segregated by race and class.

But in a show of how difficult the work could be, at least one well-connected community organizer has already declined to join the city’s efforts, saying communities of color haven’t been included in a meaningful way before now.

“It’s a cold-call,” said Javier Salamanca, who has led efforts to fight overcrowding in the district, but turned down the offer to join the unfolding diversity work. “There’s no relationship.”

District 15 has unique potential to integrate its middle schools. While segregation is often blamed on residential patterns, the district uses a choice-based enrollment system that lets families apply to any middle school in the district — even ones far beyond the neighborhoods where they live. The district also enrolls a diverse mix of students from the affluent neighborhoods of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, as well as the heavily immigrant communities of Red Hook and Sunset Park.

However, 81 percent of white students are concentrated in just three of the district’s middle schools, according to an analysis by parents pushing for changes to the admissions system.

“It’s clear that some of our middle schools do not reflect the diversity of our district,” said District 15 Superintendent Anita Skop. “We want to make sure there is equity of access for all children.”

The city awarded a $120,000 contract earlier this year to WXY Studio, an urban planning and design firm, to create a public-input process in District 15, where parents have lobbied for years for changes to the middle school admissions process. Experts said the process could become a blueprint for other districts interested in pursuing their own integration plans.

The firm — which, among other high-profile projects, helped the city create a development plan for East Harlem — has already started to assemble a working group of parents, educators and local advocates. The group of about 15 members will host a series of public meetings to gather feedback and develop a proposal to change student enrollment in the district.

The city hopes to have a plan by the end of the current school year. Earlier this year, the department announced a district-wide diversity plan for elementary schools on the Lower East Side.

Councilman Brad Lander, who represents part of District 15 and has been an outspoken advocate for school integration, called the process a “big opportunity.”

“That the department of education has wanted to commit to this is encouraging,” he said. “Taking district-wide steps to combat school segregation and achieve more integrated schools is a fundamentally important next step.”

Advocates are paying close attention to the makeup of the working group, which has already been the source of friction.

Salamanca, the co-founder of Make Space for Quality Schools in Sunset Park, who declined to join the working group, said that integration is not a top concern for parents in his community — which includes many Mexican and Chinese immigrants. They are more worried about severe school overcrowding, which leads to packed classrooms and limited space for things like science labs, he said.

The working-group invitation felt more like an effort to create the appearance of diversity than a real attempt to listen to the parents in his community, Salamanca added.

“As one of the few grassroots groups organizing parent voices in Sunset Park,” he wrote in a statement posted on Facebook, “we choose not to be tokenized for the purposes of this initiative.”

His reservations reflect a deeper criticism of the city’s budding integration movement: that it’s dominated by white middle-class parents and needs to draw on a wider range of perspectives.

“This issue can have the effect of alienating communities of color,” said Matt Gonzales, who promotes integration policies through the nonprofit New York Appleseed. The tension over the District 15 working group “is one of the clearest indications of that.”

Skop, the district superintendent, said the education department is open to feedback about how the input process should proceed. And she emphasized that the city wants to involve parents from across the district.

“I think as people see we really want to hear their voices, people will be much more eager to work with us,” she said. “We very much want to hear from all areas of the district.”

study says...

Do ‘good’ parents prep their kids for gifted exams? The answer varies by race, study finds

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Kindergarten students at Brooklyn School of Inquiry, a citywide gifted and talented program, learn how to read a number line in Nov. 2016.

Is getting your child into a gifted-and-talented program a mark of good parenting? How you answer may depend largely on your race or ethnicity, according to new research.

Allison Roda, an assistant professor of education at Molloy College in Long Island, interviewed more than 50 white, black, and Hispanic parents at an unidentified New York City school to learn about their attitudes towards gifted programs. (Her sample did not include any Asian parents.)

She found that the white parents view applying for gifted programs and preparing their children to score well on the admissions test as hallmarks of good parenting.

For the black and Hispanic families, being a good parent had more to do with choosing a diverse classroom for their child and not “gaming” the system by practicing for the gifted test, according to the report, which appeared recently in the peer-reviewed journal Teachers College Record.

The report comes as the education department and elected officials are considering how to enroll more students of color in gifted programs.

In New York City, most gifted programs are housed in separate classrooms within a larger school. Often, the two are divided along racial lines, with white and Asian students far more likely to be admitted to gifted programs. Meanwhile, black and Hispanic students — who represent 70 percent of the city’s public-school population — comprise less than 30 percent of the gifted-and-talented enrollment.

The most common entry point for gifted programs is kindergarten, with admissions based on test results. The white families Roda interviewed said they felt intense social pressure to have their children take those exams.

Many of them said they questioned whether they should subject their children to such high-stakes testing, but they went along because “everyone else is doing it,” the report says. They also saw it as a pathway to competitive schools in later grades — and even college.

“They know it’s not fair,” Roda said. “They feel the need to do it to get their children on the right track.”

While the black and Hispanic parents Roda interviewed had their children tested for gifted, none reported paying for tutors or otherwise preparing children for the test. For them, having to practice for the test meant your child wasn’t really gifted.

“They know that all of the students who are in those programs were prepped,” Roda said. “So that takes away from the legitimacy of the label and the program they were placed in, and they don’t believe in that.”

Once their children started school, parents of color saw that their kids would be an extreme minority in gifted classes. They also reported that the gifted programs weren’t all that different from the education their children were receiving in general education classes. For those reasons, many opted not to retest their child if he or she initially missed the cut-off score for admission — as opposed to white parents, who repeatedly signed up their children for retakes.

“They just equate it to a way to segregate children whose parents prep them for the test,” Roda said.

Despite the time and resources white families said they poured into preparing for the gifted test, they didn’t think it was an accurate measure of giftedness. On that point, families of color agreed. Black, white and Hispanic families also agreed that school diversity was important.

Understanding those similarities and differences could be important for efforts to better integrate gifted classes and the school system more widely. While some elected officials have called for expanding access to test prep and testing all pre-K students for giftedness as a way to increase black and Hispanic student enrollment, Roda’s research suggests that may not work since parents of color told Roda they were opposed to test prep.

Instead, Roda suggests, the city should begin to spread the practices used in gifted classrooms to entire schools.

“Be more inclusive and enrich the curriculum that way,” Roda said. “And don’t be so focused on the test.”